Portrait of Janine S. Rhoades
Janine S. Rhoades, MD
Assistant Professor (CHS), Co-Director, Division of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, MFM Fellowship Program Director
Maternal-Fetal Medicine

Office Address

McConnell Hall, 4th Floor

Administrative Assistant

B.S. Pre-Professional Studies & Music University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 2007
M.D. Washington University in St. Louis School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 2011
Residency Obstetrics and Gynecology Washington University in St. Louis School of Medicine/Barnes-Jewish Hospital , St. Louis, MO 2015
Fellowship Maternal-Fetal Medicine Washington University in St. Louis School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 2018

Diplomate, American Board of Obstetrics and Gynecology 

Maternal-Fetal Medicine

MFM Fellowship Program Director

Magna Cum Laude, University of Notre Dame 

Samuel D. Soule Award in Obstetrics and Gynecology, Washington University in St. Louis School of Medicine 

The 29th Annual Dr. David Rothman Research Symposium Acknowledgement of Excellence in Research, Best Resident Presentation, Washington University in St. Louis School of Medicine

Associate Program Director, Maternal Fetal Medicine Fellowship 

Ob-Gyn Department Education committee member 

Mock oral board examinerfor chief residents 4/2019 

Society for Maternal Fetal Medicine Fellowship Affairs Committee member 

2020 Society for Maternal Fetal Medicine 2020 annual meeting abstract reviewer 

American Journal of Perinatology reviewer

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists 

Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine

Circulating tumor DNA association with residual cancer burden after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in triple-negative breast cancer in TBCRC 030

Heather A Parsons, Timothy Blewett, Xiangying Chu, Sainetra Sridhar, Katheryn Santos, Kan Xiong, Vandana G Abramson, Ashka Patel, Ju Cheng, Adam Brufsky, Justin Rhoades, Jeremy Force, Ruolin Liu, Tiffany A Traina, Lisa A Carey, Mothaffar F Rimawi, Kathy D Miller, Vered Stearns, Jennifer Specht, Carla Falkson, Harold J Burstein, Antonio C Wolff, Eric P Winer, Nabihah Tayob, Ian E Krop, G Mike Makrigiorgos, Todd R Golub, Erica L Mayer, Viktor A Adalsteinsson

CONCLUSION: NAT for TNBC reduced ctDNA TFx by 285-fold in responders and 24-fold in non-responders. In 58% (22/38) of patients, ctDNA TFx dropped below the detection level of a commercially available test, emphasizing the need for sensitive tests. Additional studies will determine if ctDNA-guided approaches can improve outcomes.

Published: 03/22/2023

medRxiv : the preprint server for health sciences pmid:36945501

Maternal-fetal medicine fellowship program director perspective on virtual interviews following matriculation of the first virtual interview class

Janine S Rhoades, Adam K Lewkowitz, Cynthia Gyamfi-Bannerman, Stephanie Ros

CONCLUSION: Maternal-fetal medicine fellowship program directors did not identify a difference in National Resident Matching Program results between fellows interviewed virtually and those interviewed in-person. Furthermore, there was no difference between these fellows in meeting interview-based expectations in the first year of the training program. Most program directors found the virtual interview process to be effective and support ongoing virtual interviews.

Published: 08/01/2022

American journal of obstetrics & gynecology MFM pmid:35914735

Relationship Between Headache Characteristics and a Remote History of TBI in Veterans: A 10-Year Retrospective Chart Review

Colt Coffman, Deborah Reyes, Mary Catherine Hess, Alec M Giakas, Melinda Thiam, Jason Jonathon Sico, Elizabeth Seng, William Renthal, Charles Rhoades, Guoshuai Cai, X Michelle Androulakis

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The objective of this work was to examine the association between deployment-related traumatic brain injury (TBI) severity, frequency, and other injury characteristics with headache outcomes in veterans evaluated at a Veterans Administration (VA) polytrauma support clinic.

Published: 04/26/2022

Neurology pmid:35470141

Weight gain in pregnancy: can metformin steady the scales?

Jacquelyn H Adams, John Poehlmann, Jenna L Racine, J Igor Iruretagoyena, April Eddy, Kara K Hoppe, Katharina Stewart, Janine Rhoades, Kathleen M Antony

CONCLUSIONS: Metformin exposure in pregnancy was associated with less excess weight gain and a higher rate of weight loss. There was no difference in FGR or mean birth weight in metformin exposed neonates. This suggests that metformin may help avoid excess weight gain and its associated comorbidities.

Published: 03/11/2022

The journal of maternal-fetal & neonatal medicine : the official journal of the European Association of Perinatal Medicine, the Federation of Asia and Oceania Perinatal Societies, the International Society of Perinatal Obstetricians pmid:35272547

Metformin Exposure and Risk of Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

Jenna L Racine, Jacquelyn H Adams, Kathleen M Antony, Kara K Hoppe, Jesus I Iruretagoyena, Katharina S Stewart, April Eddy, Janine S Rhoades

CONCLUSION: Metformin exposure was associated with a decreased risk of composite hypertensive disorders of pregnancy in patients with pregestational type 2 diabetes. These data suggest that there may be benefit to metformin administration beyond glycemic control in this patient population.

Published: 05/03/2021

American journal of perinatology pmid:33940652

Maternal-fetal medicine program director experience of exclusive virtual interviewing during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic

Janine S Rhoades, Patrick S Ramsey, Torri D Metz, Adam K Lewkowitz

CONCLUSION: The virtual interview experience was better than expected for most program directors. However, most program directors felt less able to present their programs and assess the candidates on a virtual platform compared with previous in-person experiences. Despite this, most program directors are interested in at least a component of virtual interviewing in future years. Future efforts are needed to refine the virtual interview process to optimize the experience for program directors and...

Published: 03/02/2021

American journal of obstetrics & gynecology MFM pmid:33652158

Effect of virtual interviewing on applicant approach to and perspective of the Maternal-Fetal Medicine Subspecialty Fellowship Match

Adam K Lewkowitz, Patrick S Ramsey, Dayna Burrell, Torri D Metz, Janine S Rhoades

CONCLUSION: Virtual Maternal-Fetal Medicine fellowship interviewing was viewed favorably by applicants but corresponded with significant changes to their application approaches. The differences between virtual and in-person fellowship applicant tendencies identified in this study should inform next year's application cycle for Maternal-Fetal Medicine and possibly other obstetrics and gynecology subspecialty fellowships.

Published: 02/06/2021

American journal of obstetrics & gynecology MFM pmid:33548511

A Matter of Time: Does Gestational Age Affect the Duration of the Fetal Anatomic Survey?

John R Poehlmann, Ainsley Timmel, Jacquelyn H Adams, Vivek K Gupta, Janine S Rhoades, J Igor Iruretagoyena, Kara K Hoppe, Kathleen M Antony

CONCLUSIONS: The duration of detailed fetal anatomic examinations decreased with increasing GA in normal-weight and overweight gravidae but not in obese gravidae. Performing the anatomy scan earlier in class I and II obese gravidae (BMI, 30-40 kg/m² ) may enable improved pregnancy management options without increasing the examination duration or likelihood of a suboptimal evaluation.

Published: 11/06/2020

Journal of ultrasound in medicine : official journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine pmid:33155692

Prostaglandins and cesarean delivery for nonreassuring fetal status in patients delivering small-for-gestational age neonates at term

Joshua I Rosenbloom, Janine S Rhoades, Candice L Woolfolk, Molly J Stout, Methodius G Tuuli, George A Macones, Alison G Cahill

Objective: Growth-restricted fetuses have been excluded from many randomized trials of prostaglandins for labor induction. As prostaglandins, particularly misoprostol, are associated with increased rates of cesarean delivery for nonreassuring fetal heart tracing, it is important to assess their safety in pregnancies at higher risk of this complication. The objective of this study was to estimate the association between use of prostaglandins for labor induction in term singleton pregnancies...

Published: 04/16/2019

The journal of maternal-fetal & neonatal medicine : the official journal of the European Association of Perinatal Medicine, the Federation of Asia and Oceania Perinatal Societies, the International Society of Perinatal Obstetricians pmid:30983445

Effect of Oligohydramnios on Fetal Heart Rate Patterns during Term Labor Induction

Janine S Rhoades, Molly J Stout, George A Macones, Alison G Cahill

CONCLUSION: Term patients undergoing IOL with oligohydramnios had EFM patterns that did not differ from their induced peers.

Published: 10/30/2018

American journal of perinatology pmid:30372774

Implementation and Outcomes of Universal Delayed Umbilical Cord Clamping at Term

Janine S Rhoades, Victoria G Wesevich, Methodius G Tuuli, George A Macones, Alison G Cahill

CONCLUSION: We did not find an increased risk of adverse outcomes associated with the widespread use of DCC.

Published: 09/13/2018

American journal of perinatology pmid:30208504

Effect of a Home-Based Lifestyle Intervention on Breastfeeding Initiation Among Socioeconomically Disadvantaged African American Women with Overweight or Obesity

Adam K Lewkowitz, Julia D López, Richard I Stein, Janine S Rhoades, Rosa C Schulz, Candice L Woolfolk, George A Macones, Debra Haire-Joshu, Alison G Cahill

CONCLUSION: SED African American women with overweight or obesity who received a home-based educational intervention had higher breastfeeding rates than is reported nationally for black women (59%). However, the intervention with more breastfeeding content did not further increase breastfeeding rates or impact reasons for breastfeeding cessation.

Published: 06/19/2018

Breastfeeding medicine : the official journal of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine pmid:29912571

Normal Cervical Effacement in Term Labor

Janine S Rhoades, Molly J Stout, Candice Woolfolk, Methodius G Tuuli, George A Macones, Alison G Cahill

CONCLUSION: There is a wide range in the normal length of time for the progression of cervical effacement. However, once a patient is in active labor, 95% of patients have effaced to 1 cm or less.

Published: 04/25/2018

American journal of perinatology pmid:29689580

Defining and Managing Normal and Abnormal First Stage of Labor

Janine S Rhoades, Alison G Cahill

Modern data have redefined the normal first stage of labor. Key differences include that the latent phase of labor is much slower than was previously thought and the transition from latent to active labor does not occur until about 6 cm of cervical dilatation, regardless of parity or whether labor was spontaneous or induced. Providers should have a low threshold to use one of the safe and effective interventions to manage abnormal progression in the first stage of labor, including oxytocin,...

Published: 10/29/2017

Obstetrics and gynecology clinics of North America pmid:29078937

Delayed Umbilical Cord Clamping at <32 Weeks' Gestation: Implementation and Outcomes

Janine S Rhoades, Tatiana Bierut, Shayna N Conner, Methodius G Tuuli, Zachary A Vesoulis, George A Macones, Alison G Cahill

CONCLUSION: Implementation of a DCC protocol for preterm neonates is feasible and was successful. We did not find an increase in maternal risk or a decrease in the ability to obtain umbilical cord blood gases following DCC.

Published: 06/01/2017

American journal of perinatology pmid:28561189

Delayed cord clamping and inotrope use in preterm infants

Zachary A Vesoulis, Janine Rhoades, Pournika Muniyandi, Shayna Conner, Alison G Cahill, Amit M Mathur

CONCLUSIONS: DCC is not associated with a reduction in the use of inotropes or a difference in MABP.

Published: 04/05/2017

The journal of maternal-fetal & neonatal medicine : the official journal of the European Association of Perinatal Medicine, the Federation of Asia and Oceania Perinatal Societies, the International Society of Perinatal Obstetricians pmid:28372510

Delivery Outcomes after Term Induction of Labor in Small-for-Gestational Age Fetuses

Janine S Rhoades, Roxane M Rampersad, Methodius G Tuuli, George A Macones, Alison G Cahill, Molly J Stout

Objective The objective of this study was to estimate the delivery outcomes after induction of labor (IOL) at term in patients with small-for-gestational age (SGA) fetuses. Study Design A secondary analysis of a prospective cohort study of all term, singleton deliveries from 2010 to 2014. Patients who underwent an IOL for any indication were included. Delivery outcomes were compared between patients with and without SGA fetuses (defined as birth weight < 10th percentile for gestational age)....

Published: 11/09/2016

American journal of perinatology pmid:27824403

Can Transabdominal Cervical Length Measurement Exclude Short Cervix?

Janine S Rhoades, Jennifer M Park, Molly J Stout, George A Macones, Alison G Cahill, Methodius G Tuuli

CONCLUSION: ATA cervical length of at least 35 mm excludes a short cervix of < 30 mm. While TA cervical length screening may not be feasible in 1 in 5 women, it may be used to decrease the burden of universal TV cervical length screening.

Published: 11/03/2015

American journal of perinatology pmid:26523740

Research in education, simulation, and clinical obstetrics. 

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